This type of electrodes allows the electromagnetic field generated by the equipment to be transferred directly to the tissues.
The charges that make up the electric field pass through the body and part of the energy they “carry” is transformed, by joule effect, into thermal energy which in turn will tend to increase the temperature of the portions of tissue included between the return plate and the electrode. This phenomenon will be preponderant and significant from a therapeutic point of view in the portions of tissue which offer greater electrical resistance to the electromagnetic field. This happens most of the time close to the bone, joints, tendons, ligaments and other tissues with similar electrical characteristics.
The remaining energy “carried” by the charges activates other mechanisms commonly called “electrical effects”, i.e. the effects on the tissue that are related to the passage of a current inside the tissues and are independently stimulated regardless of the thermal effect. Among these, the most relevant is tissue regeneration which in academia is often referred to as “curing” effect.
Shape, position, materials and size of the electrodes play a very important role in giving the therapist the opportunity to control where the thermal and non-thermal effects will occur.